Deer fence is usually made out of black polypropylene plastic or black PVC coated galvanized steel.
Polypropylene plastic deer fence: Small opening size 3/4"-1" to larger 2" opening size carbon black fence mesh is available in different opening sizes and strengths. This mesh is black to inhibit breakdown from UV rays and different types of this mesh will have different longevity outdoors in sunlight; as little as 3 years to as much as 25 years. It can consist of all virgin polypropylene or a small percentage of recycled material. The black color also makes this mesh not very visible. This type of deer fence does not rust with water or salt water exposure. The smaller opening size mesh is usually not very strong and designed to be draped over vegetation as opposed to a physical barrier type of fence. The larger 1 3/4 to 2" opening size can be used as a physical barrier and can range from 400 pounds of breaking strength per square foot up to 1400 pounds of breaking strength per square foot. The higher strength versions of this poly deer fencing can repel any size deer running at any speed.
Metal deer fence: Small to large opening size wire fence of various thicknesses and strengths. This wire fence can be welded or woven. Woven wire is bent into shapes by a machine and can be knotted like traditional field fence or twisted like traditional hex type mesh (chicken wire). Metal deer fence can be plain galvanized or galvanized painted black or galvanized then black vinyl coated. Galvanization can be before weaving or welding or after welding or weaving (in galvanized after welding/weaving the welded joints are also covered with zinc for the best rust resistance). Some more common knotted metal deer fence is graduated with smaller opening size 2"x4" wire spacing at the bottom to larger 4" opening size wire spacing at the top. This wire fence and other large opening size wire fence can trap deer that run into the fence causing injury or death. Two inch opening size or smaller wire deer fence is much less likely to harm deer and just as effective. The black vinyl coated versions of this metal deer fence are also not very visible like black polypropylene deer fencing. It is not rust proof like polypropylene but can last from 5 years to 25 years depending on the type of coatings. Metal deer fence is very strong and can range from 800 pounds of breaking strength for the woven wire hex (chicken wire) types to over 2000 pounds of breaking strength per square foot for some of the welded wire types. 1"x1" metal or smaller can also be used as a chew barrier or rodent barrier at the base of a poly deer fence.